Caroline completed PhD research at the Edinburgh College of Art, the University of Edinburgh. Her research was on: The perception of scale and scale effects in the landscape, with specific reference to wind turbines in Scotland.

This research built upon established knowledge of how humans view their surroundings, and applied theories of environmental psychology and methods of landscape and visual impact assessment, experiential landscape assessment and public attitude and preference study. The outputs of the research include:

  • Information on how people perceive scale and scale effects in the landscape;
    Description of a method for assessing scale effects (incorporating aspects of LVIA, experiential landscape assessment and the findings of public attitude and preference studies);
    Description of the scale effects of different windfarms in different landscapes; and
  • Prompt lists for design to minimise the adverse scale effects of windfarms in the landscape that are perceived by people.

Please contact Caroline if you would like further information about this research.


Caroline is the Landscape Advisor for the Cairngorms National Park Authority.  She also tutors part-time in landscape architecture at the University of Edinburgh and is working on publication of her research on the perception of scale and scale effects in the landscape.